Julius and A. Tamer, Effects of light intensity on Orthosiphon stamineus benth. Chan, S. Abd Shukor and M.
Mashitah, Adsorption chromatography of carotenes from extracted oil of palm oil mill effluent. Applied Sci. Olonisakin, D. Bako and P. Madu, Compositional studies and physicochemical characteristics of cashew nut Anarcadium occidentale flour. Hydrolysis of palm oil products-An overview. Palm Oil Res. Malaysia Bull. Chong, C. Jalani and K. Chan Eds. Dickson, L. Microsoft Corporation, Washington. Gravani, R.
Food facts. Facts Sheets, No. James, M. Cleland, Fats and Oils: The Facts. Meadow Lea Foods Ltd. Law, K. Palm oil Research Institute, Bangui. Timms and N. Wong, Application of the portable dissolve oxygen analyser for the determination of dissolved oxygen content in palm oil products. However, this method involves manual operations, requires a high amount of solvents and the presence of high amounts of carotene causes difficulties to determine the end point of the titration [ 2 ].
Although all of these techniques are based on high technology, the palm oil still has to be extracted prior to the analytical separation either through supercritical fluid extraction, Soxhlet extraction [ 11 ], liquid-liquid extraction or solid-phase extraction methods [ 2 ].
In this study, the FFAs in palm oil were converted into fatty hydroxamic acids FHAs via an enzymatic route before optical detection in order to improve the assay sensitivity.
This process is called an aminolysis process. Previous studies have shown that the synthesis of FHAs can be carried out via chemical synthesis [ 13 ] and enzymatic synthesis [ 14 ]. This type of enzyme is known as a triacylglycerol lipase [ 14 ].
Moreover lipases are able to maintain their catalytic activity at low-water concentrations, such as those seen in organic phases, supercritical fluids and ionic media [ 19 ].
In this work, we used immobilized lipase in order to improve the stability of the enzyme when involved in extreme reaction conditions and for ease of product isolation [ 20 ]. On top of that, lipase catalysed reactions are a green and environmentally friendly technology [ 21 , 22 ]. The main objective of this study was to develop an alternative method for the detection of FFAs in crude palm oil based on an aminolysis method utilizing enzymes which uses less solvent and is environmentally friendly.
The product complex was monitored using a spectrophotometric method. In order to ensure a fast detection system, it is necessary to study all the parameters involved in the aminolysis reaction before developing the detection system.
Several parameters including time of reaction, mol ratio of the reactants, reaction temperature, types of enzymes and V V ion solution concentration were studied in order to ensure a significant and rapid colour change. The FFAs in palm oil can be converted into FHAs when reacted with hydroxylamine hydrochloride in the presence of lipase enzyme. Hydroxylamine hydrochloride is a highly active nucleophile and acted as an acyl acceptor in this reaction [ 23 ].
FHAs are known as hydroxamic acid derivatives possessing chelating properties and able to form complexes with metal ions [ 24 ] such as V V [ 25 ], iron III [ 24 ] and copper II [ 26 ]. Thus the FHAs formed in the organic phase were reacted with V V to produce a blue coloured complex for spectrophotometric determination of the free fatty acids.
This colored compound was proportional to the concentration of FFAs in palm oil and was analyzed via optical detection using a spectrophotometric technique. The important parameters for the quantitative reaction were type of enzymes, time of reaction and mole ratio of the reactants in order to obtain the most rapid and significant colour change for development of a FFA detection system.
The formation of the complex causes a shift in wavelength from right to the left due to a change in color of the reagent phase from yellow to blue.
The maximum difference of the two absorbance spectra was observed at nm and this wavelength was used for further analysis. The measurement was expressed as an absorbance difference, which is defined as the difference between the absorbance of the FHA alone and FHA-V V complex.
Rapid response time is one of the crucial parameters in the proposed detection of free fatty acids as it determines the efficiency of the developed system. Hence, in this study various aminolysis reaction times were investigated in order to obtain the most rapid colour changes.
Different reaction times ranging from 30 min up to min were studied while other parameters were kept constant. The detection wavelength was set at nm. Figure 2 shows that the absorbance value increases up to 50 min of reaction. Further increases in the reaction time caused a decline in the absorbance.
This phenomenon might be due to the fact excessive amounts of substrate are present at this rate, thus inhibiting the reaction.
The effect of reaction time on the aminolysis reaction at nm. In enzymatic reactions the mole ratio of reactants is one of the most important parameters to produce high yields of product to react with V V.
Here, the amount of hydroxylamine hydrochloride was varied between 1 mmol and 3 mmol, while the amount of CPO was kept constant at 6 mmol. The colour intensity of the complex increases as the mole ratio of hydroxylamine hydrochloride increases. Theoretically, by increasing the mol ratio of reactants, the recovery of the product FHA available for reaction with V V increases.
A similar trend was also reported in the literature [ 14 , 15 , 16 ]. In this study, 1 mmol of hydroxylamine hydrochloride to 2 mmol of CPO was selected as the optimum mole ratio of reactants since it gave the highest absorbance. As the enzymatic aminolysis reaction is an exothermic reaction, the temperature of the reaction is an important parameter to produce high throughput of product.
This could be explained theoretically by the notion that at higher temperature, molecules move faster with higher energy and more successful collisions occur between them, and hence the rate of reaction increases. The result was in contrast with the research reported by Servat et al. Absorbance maxima for aminolysis reactions at different reaction temperatures. In this work, the amount of enzyme used for the synthesis of FHAs was optimized. Experiments were carried out by using different amounts of enzyme ranging from 20 mg to 50 mg during the aminolysis reaction.
Previous research has reported that the yield of FHAs is increased when the amount of lipase enzyme is increased [ 13 ]. When a high concentration of enzymes is used, the time of reaction can be greatly reduced [ 15 ], thus rapid detection can be obtained.
Figure 4 shows that, when the mass of enzyme is increased, the absorbance of the FHA-V V complex also increased. A similar trend has also been reported by Suhendra et al. These enzymes are thermostable in nature and able to tolerate extreme reaction conditions [ 27 , 28 ]. The colour changes were detected at nm. The correlation study between the developed and standard methods was carried out by using both enzymes for further confirmation.
The standard errors of calibration SEC obtained were 0. The standard errors of performance SEP were 0. In terms of reproducibility r and accuracy a , both FTIR and chemical methods showed comparable results. Because of its simpler and more rapid analysis, which is less than 2 min per sample, as well as the minimum use of solvents and labor, FTIR has an advantage over the wet chemical method.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Guillen, M. Food Agric. Griffiths, P. Griffiths and J. Google Scholar. The free radical activator provides the trigger for the oil oxidation reaction to form hydroperoxides. Considering that some of those species are already formed in the samples, as revealed by the peroxide values, the amount of hydroperoxides generated by the AMVN, shown by the increase in the DPPP fluorescence, depends on the starting conditions of each oil sample.
Although from Fig. This aspect allows the production of more hydroperoxydes from the oxidation induced by AMVN. The smaller the value of that ratio; the higher is the difference between the untreated and the de-acidified oils. From both the experimental results, in fact, it is confirmed that the de-acidified samples have a higher resistance to oxidative stress. By analyzing the data so far collected and in order to explain the role of FFA on the oxidative stability of the oils, some relationships among the studied parameters were taken into consideration.
The high significance of the correlation shown in Fig. Moreover, conjugated diene free fatty acids appear to be able to affect the oxidative stability of RPO more than the peroxide radicals that remain entirely in the de-acidified oil fractions RPO-D see Table 1.In this paper, a comprehensive study has been made on the detection of free fatty acids FFAs in palm oil via free fatty acid in palm oil optical technique based on enzymatic aminolysis reactions. The colored compound formed after complexation between FHA and vanadium V free fatty acid in palm oil solution was proportional to the FFA content in the CPO samples and was analyzed using free fatty acid in palm oil spectrophotometric method. In order to develop a rapid detection system, the parameters involved in the aminolysis process best free stock screener for day trading studied. The utilization of immobilized lipase as catalyst during free fatty acid in palm oil aminolysis process offers simplicity in the product isolation and the free fatty acid in palm oil of conducting the process under extreme reaction conditions. Free fatty acid FFA detection in palm oil has attracted abundant attention from researchers since it is one of the most crucial aspects which influence the quality of palm oil products and their prices [ 12 ]. High FFA levels in palm oil lead to lower flavor quality [ 3 ], undesirable saponification, low product yields and complications in the subsequent separation processing free fatty acid in palm oil [ 4 ]. Furthermore, a high FFA content in palm oil also may result in rancidity of the oil caused by the oxidation of unsaturated FFAs [ 5 ]. FFAs in palm oil can be increased in several ways which include damage to the palm fruits cells caused by the harvesting, rough handling or other processes [ 5 ], fafty action of enzymes in the palm fruits, the reaction of oil with water during storage [ 6 ] and lengthy storage of the palm fruits [ 7 ]. Traditionally, FFA fatyt in palm oil are determined using a manual titration method frer on the Malaysian Palm Oil Board MPOB standard procedure which involves titrating the sample against potassium hydroxide KOH using phenolphthalein as indicator [ 8 ]. However, this method involves manual operations, requires a high amount of solvents and the presence of high amounts of carotene causes difficulties to determine the end point of the titration [ 2 feee. Although all of these techniques are based on high technology, the palm oil still has to be free fatty acid in palm oil prior to the analytical separation either through supercritical fluid extraction, Soxhlet extraction [ 11 ], liquid-liquid extraction or solid-phase extraction methods [ 2 ]. In this study, avid FFAs in faty oil inn converted into fatty hydroxamic acids FHAs via an enzymatic route before optical detection in order to improve the assay sensitivity. Free fatty acid in palm oil process is called an aminolysis process. Previous studies have shown that the synthesis of FHAs can be carried out via chemical synthesis [ 13 ] and enzymatic synthesis [ 14 ]. This type of enzyme is known as a triacylglycerol lipase [ 14 free fatty acid in palm oil. Moreover lipases are able to maintain their catalytic activity at low-water concentrations, such as those seen in organic phases, supercritical fluids and ionic media ratty 19 ]. In this work, we used ;alm lipase in order to improve lil stability of the enzyme when involved in extreme reaction conditions and for ease of product free fatty acid in palm oil [ 20 ]. On top of that, lipase catalysed reactions are a green free fatty acid in palm oil environmentally friendly technology [ 2122 ]. The main objective fee free fatty acid in palm oil frre was to develop an alternative method for the detection of FFAs in crude palm oil based on an aminolysis method utilizing enzymes which uses less solvent and is environmentally friendly. The product complex was monitored using a spectrophotometric method. In order to ensure a fast detection system, it is necessary to study all the parameters involved in the aminolysis qcid before developing e hentai galleries the free hentai detection system. Several parameters including time of reaction, mol ratio of the reactants, reaction temperature, types of enzymes and V V ion solution concentration were studied in order to ensure a significant and rapid colour change. Refined palm oil and its fractions are widely used in various food products such as margarines, shortenings, cooking oils, spreads, confectionery. The traditional method for determination of free fatty acids in palm oil is through titration of the sample against potassium hydroxide in hot 2-propanol solutions by. The purpose of the pretreatment process was to reduce the free fatty acids (FFA) content from high content FFA (> 23%) of sludge palm oil (SPO) to a minimum. Flow injection (FI) non-aqueous titrimetric methods for the determination of free fatty acids (FFA) in palm oil samples are described. Single-line and two-line FI. ABSTRACT A rapid method for quantitative determination of free fatty acids from crude palm oil to bleached palm oil (BPO) and then distilled. The major fatty acids (FFA) in palm oil are myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic. The minor constituents can be divided into two groups. The first group. Crude palm oil (CPO) mainly consists of glycerides and small quantities of non-glyceride components. The non-glyceride components include free fatty acids . The effect of light of different colours (wavelength) on the Free Fatty Acid (FFA) value of stored crude palm oil is hereby reported. Equal portions of the palm oil. FFAs in crude palm oil (CPO) were converted into fatty hydroxamic acids (FHAs) in a biphasic lipid/aqueous medium in the presence of. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 6 September Nurul; Khan, Shaheen 26 December The FAO considers palm oil coming from the pulp and palm kernels to be primary products. Food and Agriculture Organization. Environmental Research Letters. Although palm oil is applied to wounds for its supposed antimicrobial effects, research does not confirm its effectiveness. According to a report published in the Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews , palm oil was determined to be a sustainable source of both food and biofuel. The percentage of FFAs in the oil is an indication of their level of degeneration and quality. Home Analysis Free Fatty Acids. J Food Agri Environ 2: 18—