For Hire Post jobs, find pros, and collaborate commission-free in our professional marketplace. Often, part of the name comes from the wrestler's master, a place name such as the name of a province , a river , or a sea , the name of a weapon, an item identified with Japanese tradition like a koto or nishiki , or a term indicating superiority. Often, waka indicates a wrestler whose father was also in sumo; in this case, the meaning is junior. Another notable example is the wrestler Sentoryu , which means fighting war dragon but is also homophonous with St.
Louis , his city of origin. Geisha and practitioners of traditional crafts and arts such as pottery , the tea ceremony , calligraphy , irezumi tattooing and ikebana flower arranging often take professional names. In many cases, these come from the master under whom they studied.
In English, the names of living or recently deceased Japanese are generally given surname last and without macrons. As of , when using English and other Western languages Japanese people usually give their names in an order reversed from the traditional Japanese naming order, with the family name after the given name, instead of the given name after the family name.
When Japanese people attended events for the international community, such as balls, Japanese people used the western naming order.
For instance "Kazuyuki" may call himself "Kaz. Most foreign publications reverse the names of modern individuals, and most Japanese reverse their own names when creating materials for foreign consumption. A Japanese executive or official usually has two business cards meishi.
The first one is in Japanese and intended for fellow Japanese, using the Japanese order, and the second one is intended for foreigners, with the name in the Western order. In Russian names may be written with family name first and given name second as well as the other way round and this applies to Japanese names as well.
In English many historical figures are still referred to with the family name first. John Power, author of "Japanese names," wrote "People who can speak and read Japanese have a strong resistance to switching Japanese names to the Western order. Shizuka Saeki of Look Japan said, "This is not only a headache for writers and translators, it is also a source of confusion for readers.
Riggs of the Society of Writers, Editors and Translators SWET , a professional writing organization headquartered in Tokyo , said, "When you publish a book about Japan, you are publishing it for people who want to know about Japan.
So they are interested in learning something new or something as it is supposed to be. Edith Terry, author of How Asia Got Rich , said that because Japanese people are "mastering" a "Western game" people have some pride and at the same time feel insecurity because the "game" is on "Western terms" rather than "Japanese terms.
Saeki said in that most Japanese people writing in English use western order, but that some figures began to promote the use of Japanese order as Japan became a major economic power in the 20th century. The Japan Style Sheet , a guide for producing English language works about Japan written by SWET, advocates the use of the Japanese naming order as often as possible because the translators wanted to promote a consistency in naming order.
In , one publisher of English language textbooks in Japan used Japanese order, while in six of the eight publishers of English language textbooks in Japan use Japanese order. In December the Council on the National Language of the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture recommended that English language productions begin using the Japanese naming order because "it is in general desirable that personal names be presented and written in a way that preserves their unique forms, except for registries and other documents with specific standards.
In a January opinion poll from the Agency for Cultural Affairs on the preferred order of Japanese names in the English language, In the Japan Foundation decided that it would use the Japanese naming order in all of its publications. A Japan Foundation publishing division spokesperson stated around that some SWET publications, including popular anglophone newspapers, continue to use western order. As of the agency's style sheet recommends using a different naming order style depending upon the context.
For instance it advocates using the western order in publications for readers who are not familiar with Japan, such as international conference papers. The Chicago Manual of Style recommends indexing Japanese names according to the way the original text treats the name. If the text uses the Western order, the Japanese name is reinverted and indexed by the family name with a comma. If the text uses Japanese order, the name is listed by the family name with no inversion and no comma.
Within census records, you can often find information like name of household members, ages, birthplaces, residences, and occupations. United States England Canada. Top Male Occupations in Farmer. Top Female Occupations in Cook. Views Read Edit View history. It shows a declaration for the "person" element. Now we want to extend the "person" element with a "children" element. Such a fall for Pharrell especially when you tune in into his "Freedom" song.
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